Natural Sciences

Effects of Alcohol on the Body
By Jennifer Kenny

1     Many young people find it tempting to drink alcohol by sneaking some with their friends at parties. They think this behavior is innocent and harmless. They think they won't look cool if they don't have any. Is this behavior really harmless though?

     Well, first and foremost, in the United States, it is illegal for anyone under the age of 21 to drink alcohol. Even though those over 21 can legally consume it doesn't make it less dangerous for them either.

     Alcohol is a drug. It can be found in beer, wine, and other kinds of liquor. Why is alcohol considered a drug? Well, a drug causes changes in a person's physical and emotional state. Alcohol does this as well. The changes caused by drinking alcohol are known as intoxication. No form of alcohol is considered perfectly safe. Alcohol has several short-term and long-term effects on the human mind and body.

     The short-term effects of alcohol are those that are a result of drinking on a particular day. These effects may vary from person to person depending on how much alcohol the individual had that particular time, how much food is in the person's stomach at the moment, any medicine or other drugs present in the human's body, the person's size, the individual's gender, and interestingly enough, the genetic factors of the person.

     Let's say a person has had a few drinks containing alcohol. The previously mentioned factors will determine how strongly some of these following short-term effects are seen. First of all, alcohol is an irritant. It bothers the person's mouth, throat, esophagus, and stomach. It can make a person vomit. Second of all, alcohol forces the heart to work harder. How? Alcohol causes the blood vessels to widen. This makes the heart have to work harder to pump the blood. Thirdly, a person's body loses heat when consuming alcohol. Ironically, a person may feel warm and look flushed but losing the heat may make the body too cold. A fourth short-term effect is that the liver must work harder. One of the jobs of the liver is to break down poisonous substances. An alcoholic beverage is considered toxic. However, the liver can only handle one alcoholic beverage an hour. Any more than this will stress the liver. Finally, alcohol causes dehydration. In order for your body to break down alcohol, it needs water. Therefore, the kidneys produce more urine. The necessary water is taken from the rest of the body. When the water is taken from the brain, the cells in the brain may begin to die. If the body in general becomes severely dehydrated, the result is the person may experience a headache, nausea, and dizziness. All in all, a person may say he or she has a hangover. What exactly is that? When the person has had too much to drink and his body feels extremely uncomfortable physically, the person is said to have a hangover.

     Alcohol also has some dramatic short-term effects on the person's mind. Alcohol is a depressant. Alcohol slows down the body's nervous system. After one drink, a person may feel more relaxed. After two drinks the person is unable to make good decisions or cope with anything difficult. The individual loses his inhibitions, or natural limits of behavior. After more than that, a person's eyes can't focus, he or she will slur sounds, lose coordination, and have mood swings. A person may do things that he would never have done without drinking because the alcohol has caused the person to lose judgment.

     Do you remember how these short-term effects of alcohol are altered by other factors such as weight or how many drinks the person consumed? A test can actually be performed to come up with a blood alcohol concentration. This identifies the amount of alcohol in an individual's blood. A blood alcohol concentration of 0.08 is the legal limit for driving but even a lower level of 0.02 causes the person's reaction time to slow and thereby effects the ability to drive safely. A blood alcohol concentration of 0.3 can cause a person to slip into a coma. A blood alcohol concentration of 0.4 can cause death.

     All of the previously related effects and levels were short-term. There are, as well, serious long-term effects from drinking alcohol on a regular basis. Alcohol can cause high blood pressure, create an irregular heartbeat, and enlarge the heart. It can hurt the liver by causing hepatitis, liver cancer, and cirrhosis. Alcohol use over a lengthy time can cause the stomach lining to bleed. It can also put a major strain on the kidneys. Because alcohol can cause brain cells to die, permanent changes to the brain can result. Some loss of brain activity occurs in all heavy drinkers.

     Obviously, it is essential that those under the age of 18 never drink alcohol. Adults who choose to drink need to accept responsibility for their decision, drink reasonable amounts, and understand the short-term and long-term effects of alcohol use.


1  Drug Education Introduction
By Jennifer Kenny  

You've probably heard people telling you not to take illegal drugs since you were a little kid. You probably have high hopes and big dreams for your future. If everyone else has these similar hopes and dreams, how is it possible that someone smart and ambitious abuses drugs?

     Unfortunately, our society is filled with mixed messages. On one hand, you might see a commercial encouraging you to keep away from drugs. The next minute, you might be watching a movie where the character thinks drugs are cool. Using illegal drugs, though, is downright dangerous. They can have permanent, negative effects on your body. Most are addictive. Illegal drugs are a huge factor in car crashes and crimes. If people share needles, they can contract hepatitis B or HIV. A person can overdose, or take too much of a drug, and get sick or even die. People using illegal drugs can use poor judgment, thereby causing many other problems to occur.

1     Are drugs good or bad for you? Well, that is certainly a question worthy of discussion since there's not a yes or no answer. Was that a trick question? Not exactly. Think about it. What do aspirin and cocaine have in common? They're both drugs. Drugs are chemical substances that cause changes, physical or emotional, in an individual. To go back to the first question then, drugs can be labeled good or bad depending on their purpose. Drugs used for medicine are meant to help sick people. People looking to change their brain functioning in an unhealthy way use drugs labeled as drugs of abuse.

     A medicine is a drug used to prevent, treat, or cure an illness or pain. Did you ever take amoxicillin for an ear infection? You were taking a medicine, prescribed by a doctor, to get rid of the pain and sickness. To be a medicine, a drug can be described as having three qualities - effectiveness, safety, and side effects. A medicine is considered effective when it is good at its job. For example, penicillin is effective at wiping out certain bacteria. Medicines must be safe to use for the purpose for which they are intended. You wouldn't want to take medicine for bronchitis if it would hurt your heart, would you? Finally, most medicines have side effects, which are listed on their packaging. Just as each person is a unique individual, not every medicine will be 100% safe for 100% of the people. Common side effects include drowsiness and diarrhea. Only the physician and patient can decide what side effects are dangerous or worth it for the patient.

     Medicines are classified by their jobs. If you have ever walked into a pharmacy, you know there are many kinds out there. For example, analgesics relieve pain. Antihistamines help allergies. Antibiotics kill bacteria. Antacids relieve heartburn. You can get these, and many others, in one of two ways at a pharmacy - by prescription or over-the-counter. What do these words mean? A prescription is a written order by a doctor. It is filled in the pharmacy so the patient can take a certain medication. That means a licensed pharmacist prepares the medicine, provides the proper amount, and lists the doctor's directions. A person would not be able to obtain this medicine without the doctor's prescription. An over-the-counter medicine can be purchased without a prescription by a doctor. Two medicines might be classified the same way but one may require a prescription and one may not. For example, you already know that analgesics relieve pain. Well, aspirin and codeine are both analgesics. Aspirin can be bought without a prescription, but codeine is much more powerful and, therefore, needs a prescription. With or without a prescription, all drugs must be used carefully.

     Drugs that are used for reasons other than medical ones are considered drugs of abuse. Examples are cocaine, alcohol, or marijuana. These drugs are used for their mind-altering effects. For a short period of time, a person may think these drugs make him or her happier or less worried. However, if these drugs are used long-term, they can permanently change the brain, change a person's behavior, or cause serious health problems.

     All drugs, medicines or abused ones, have chemicals. Long ago, they were made from plants, animals, or fungi. Today, scientists make many drugs in laboratories.

     Drugs enter the body in many different ways. You are probably most familiar with drugs you take by mouth - either by liquid, tablet, or capsule. Sometimes an implanted pump can inject drugs into your body. Sometimes a needle can be used. Some drugs are inhaled. Sometimes patches release the drugs into your skin. Sometimes drugs are applied topically to the skin. A doctor will decide the appropriate amount and approach for the patient.

     Drugs are serious business. They should only be used for their intended purpose and when a doctor or parent gives them to you.

Why Do People Abuse Drugs?
By Jennifer Kenny


     IT IS NEVER WORTH THE RISK TO TAKE ILLEGAL DRUGS. So why do some people start? Some want to experiment and try something new. Some feel depressed or bored. Some people like high-risk situations. Some think drugs will help solve their problems. Many experience peer pressure.

     The problem with all these reasons is that once a person starts it is hard to stop. He might like the feeling, but the more he uses, the more he feels he must take. In reality, drug abuse negatively affects his life.

     Drug abuse affects the individual. Drug abuse affects the family. Drug abuse affects society. You've already learned the individual risks - health problems, accidents, and violence. For a few minutes of feeling "high," an individual risks everything - college, a job, and a future. Also, it is a crime just to process illegal drugs.

     Drug abuse is a problem for families. What do you think the first thing a family loses when drugs are involved? The answer is trust. Abusers often lie to hide their problem. Very often they steal money from family members in order to obtain the drugs. A person that is abusing drugs often reacts strangely to situations, withdraws from loved ones, breaks rules, changes friends, or dresses differently. At least twenty-five percent of family violence is connected to drugs.

     Drug abuse affects society. Very often a person who uses illegal drugs needs medical attention. That healthcare is often paid for by the government, and it is ultimately paid for by a working person's paycheck. Drug abuse is also connected to crime. Sixty-four billion dollars was spent dealing with drug-related crime in 1995. There are so many court cases that many states now have their own drug courts. Of course, there is no way to estimate the emotional costs.

     So, now you know why people start taking drugs. You also know that drug abuse ultimately affects everyone. It is important, therefore, to say no to drugs. How can you do that?

     Get involved with others who are drug free. Stay active in school activities or sports, or volunteer. Stay away from those who use drugs, so you won't feel pressured. If you are pressured, say no. Only you can protect your future. A true friend won't force you to do something that might hurt you. Say no firmly. Be specific about why you don't do drugs and what would happen if you did. Suggest something else to do. If all else fails, leave the situation.

     Live drug free. Even though you might feel pressured, you will help protect your future.

Types of Drugs and Drug Abuse

1     There are many types of drugs. There are legal drugs that are used as medicines, such as prescription drugs or over-the-counter drugs. There are illegal drugs that you are not supposed to use, buy, or sell.

     Prescription drugs and over-the-counter drugs are meant to heal. They must be used correctly. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) decides that these drugs are safe.

     Herbal medicines can have drug-like effects. They are not regulated by the FDA. If the creators of an herbal supplement make a health claim about it, the label must say that the FDA has not evaluated its safety. Herbal medicines should be used carefully. Some herbal medicines can be harmful, especially if they are used improperly. Others can interact with prescription or over-the-counter drugs, causing dangerous effects or rendering them ineffective.

     The nicotine found in tobacco is considered a drug. It is addictive, making the user crave it. Tobacco products, such as cigars, cigarettes, and chewing tobacco, are hazardous. Cigars and cigarettes can cause serious illness in both smokers and the nonsmokers who are exposed to their smoke. Chewing tobacco, even though it is not inhaled, still is harmful to the body.

     Alcohol is also considered a drug. Even though it is heavily promoted for relaxation, excessive use can cause health problems. It is a factor in more than half of all accidental deaths. People who become physically and psychologically dependent on it suffer from a disease called alcoholism. It is illegal to drink alcohol if you are under 21 years of age.

     Marijuana is a drug that alters a person's mind. Some U.S. states have recently legalized marijuana for medical use. Some believe that it is helpful for treating chronic pain, lessening the frequency of muscle spasms or seizures, and reducing the side effects of nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy. For those without a prescription or anyone living in a state that has not legalized marijuana for medical use, it is an illegal drug. For any user, it alters reaction time, thinking, and coordination.

     Cocaine is also an illegal drug. It is a stimulant. It is highly addictive. The initial feeling a user experiences is excitement, but then the user feels anxious and depressed. Cocaine can increase blood pressure to a dangerous level.

     Hallucinogens are drugs that cause hallucinations, or sights and sounds that aren't really there. Users sometimes react violently to scary hallucinations. LSD and angel dust are examples of hallucinogens, and they are illegal.

     Drugs made from opium are considered narcotics. The ones doctors prescribe for severe pain are legal, but should be used carefully by following the doctor's strict orders. Most, such as heroin, are illegal. They are very addictive and too much can be fatal. An additional risk to heroin users is AIDS as a result of shared needles by users.

     There is an additional group of drugs known as designer drugs. People make changes to certain drugs that already exist, thereby making them designer drugs.

     Now you know there are many types of drugs. So what constitutes the difference between a drug user and a drug abuser? A drug user has a medical reason to take a drug, gets the drug legally, and follows directions to use it. A drug abuser is not relieving a medical ailment. The drug abuser uses drugs to fit in, escape problems, or for a temporary rush. Very often the drug abuser gets the drug illegally.

     How does a person become a drug abuser? Many times a person will start with nicotine, alcohol, or marijuana. Because these are usually a user's first drugs, they are called gateway drugs. Many times teenagers begin to use these drugs because of peer pressure and they don't understand how addictive, or dependency forming, these drugs can be. If they can't break the habit and are using drugs for non-medical reasons, they are considered drug abusers.

     Drug abusers need help. They must admit they have a problem and get professional help. Getting off drugs is very problematic because of withdrawal symptoms. Recovering addicts could teach us a very important lesson. It is easier to never have started taking drugs in the first place.

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Internetkällor – om puberteten – mer om puberteten - Kamratposten om puberteten - frågor om puberteten – mer om puberteten - om sexualitet och preventivmedel

i samband med puberteten - användbar sökmotor - uppslagsverk med frågor om det mesta - länkskafferiet

What Does Health Really Mean?

What do you think of when someone says he or she is healthy? Most people would answer that question by saying they are not sick. That usually means they are free from disease. Today, though, health needs to take into account lifestyle choices as well as the presence or absence of infection. What does that mean?
2     In the 1800s, most people died from infections that were passed from person to person. These infections included polio, tuberculosis, the flu, and pneumonia. Therefore, when a person said he was healthy, it meant he wasn't suffering from an infection.
3     Today most of these infections are under control because of advances in medicine and prevention. Many of the factors that affect our health nowadays are lifestyle choices. Lifestyle diseases, such as some kinds of diabetes, heart disease, and cancer, are huge health problems in our society. They are caused partly by unhealthy actions and partly by other things.
4     There are risk factors associated with any health problem. What are risk factors? Risk factors are things that increase your chances of injury, disease, or any other health problem. There are different kinds of risk factors. Some are controllable; others are not. The difference between the two is obvious.
5     A person can do something about controllable risk factors. For example, heart disease is a huge problem in modern times. Being overweight, not exercising, smoking, and eating poorly are all controllable risk factors. To decrease the risk of heart disease, a person can choose to exercise, not smoke, lose weight, and eat nutritious meals.
6     Unfortunately, a person can't do anything about uncontrollable risk factors. These risk factors can't be changed. Uncontrollable risk factors for heart disease are age, race, gender, and heredity. For example, older people are more likely to have heart problems. No one can change how old he or she is.

7     You are still young. So why should you be concerned about risk factors? The leading cause of death for children is motor vehicle accidents. Always wearing a seat belt can reduce deaths and severe injuries. The leading cause of death for those between 19 and 65 is cancer; older than 65, the leading cause of death is heart disease. Stopping risky behaviors early in life can help ensure a long and healthy future.
8     As young as you are, you are quite powerful! Protect yourself from these common teen risk factors: a sedentary lifestyle, alcohol and drug use, sexual activity, dangerous behaviors, smoking, and poor eating habits.
9     It is important to be physically active. Being sedentary is a risk factor for diabetes and heart disease.
10     Alcohol and drug abuse can cause certain types of cancer, heart disease, and brain damage. These types of abuse are also leading causes in motor vehicle accidents, violent activities, and mental problems.
11     Sexual activity can lead to health problems. Sexually transmitted diseases are not only unpleasant, but many can cause cancer later in life. HIV infection can lead to AIDS. An unplanned pregnancy can certainly alter a life.
12     Dangerous behaviors cover a wide range of behaviors for teenagers. For example, some teens choose not to use a seat belt, and that can be a great risk if the individual is in a car accident. Others enjoy the thrill of fast or reckless driving or activities that involve a high risk of pain or injury.
13     Many teens start to smoke not understanding how addictive tobacco use is. Smoking is considered the leading preventable cause of death in our country. Smoking can lead to heart disease, respiratory problems, and cancer.
14     Eating in a nutritious manner is essential to preventing many lifestyle diseases. Eating healthy foods can help decrease an individual's chances of cancer and heart disease. Eating the wrong foods can have the opposite effects.
15     Your choices have a definitive effect on your health, or state-of-well-being. Choose wisely.


1     You know what a magnet is. It is a piece of metal that attracts and pushes away other pieces of metal. A magnet also attracts and repels other magnets. A magnet has many uses.
 2     So let's say you want to pick up something really heavy with a magnet. You want to move a car. You would need a really big, strong magnet for that. Once you get that big magnet to lift the car, how would you get it off the car? If it's strong enough to lift a car, you couldn't pull it off by yourself. You'd need a bunch of people - maybe fifty or one hundred! So maybe a magnet isn't the right tool for the job.
 3     That's only partly correct. A magnet is a great tool for lifting heavy things. A permanent magnet isn't the solution, though. An electromagnet is what you need.
 4     An electromagnet is made up of just a few parts. There's an iron core - like an iron bar. Tiny particles in the iron have electrical charges. The particles all point different directions. In an electromagnet, a metal wire (usually copper) is wrapped around the iron core. When an electric current passes through the wire, the electricity in the wire straightens out the electrical charges in the iron. The charges add together to make a strong magnet.
 5     The more electrical current that flows in the coil of wire, the stronger the magnet. The more wire that is wrapped around the core, the stronger the magnet. There must be electric current running through the wire, because without it, there is no magnetism at all.
 6     Can you think how this kind of magnet could be useful?
 7     Think about the car you want to move. If you had a big electromagnet, you could put it on top of the car. You could turn the electromagnet on and pick up the car. When you were finished moving it, you could turn the electromagnet off. Then it wouldn't take a whole bunch of strong people to pull the magnet off the car!
 8     One of the world's largest electromagnets was built in Ontario, Canada. While it was being tested, a worker was walking by with a knife in his pocket. The electromagnet pulled the knife out of his pocket and slammed it against its side from seven feet away! It can lift up to two hundred seventy tons. That is like lifting one hundred thirty minivans and holding them up over the ground!
 9     Electromagnets can be very large and strong. They can be very small and delicate. They can lift very heavy objects. They can help send sound waves out of speakers. They are used in many electric devices, like the doorbell shown in the picture. Electromagnets can be found in televisions, car starters, radio towers, and computer hard drives. Electromagnets are a very important part of modern technology.
You probably have magnets at home. Many people keep them on their refrigerator. They use them to hold up important papers, pictures, or calendars. Maybe you played with the magnets when you were younger. If you did, you probably know a few things about magnets already. You probably know that magnets don't stick to everything. They won't stick to plastic. They won't stick to wood. Magnets will stick to metal objects, like your refrigerator, but they won't stick to all kinds of metal. You might have noticed that magnets will stick to other magnets. If you did, you might also know that they will push away other magnets! All of these things probably left you wondering, "How do magnets work?"
Magnets work because of an invisible force. It is called magnetism, or the magnetic force. The magnetic force surrounds a magnet. The magnetic force is created by the movement of electric charges. Atoms, the tiny building blocks of matter, are the source of this electric charge. An atom has a positively charged core. The core is surrounded by negatively charged electrons. The electrons spin around the core of the atom. This turns the atom into a tiny magnet. Each atom in an object creates a small magnetic force. In most materials, the atoms align in ways where the magnetic forces of the atoms point in many, random directions. The forces cancel each other out. There are some special materials, though, where the atoms align in a way where the magnetic forces of most of the atoms are pointed in the same direction. The forces of the atoms combine and the object behaves as a magnet

   Why do magnets stick to some materials and not others? Generally, magnets stick to materials made out of iron, nickel, or cobalt. These materials are called ferromagnetic materials. Ferromagnetic materials have a special structure. A magnet can change the direction of the magnetic forces of the atoms in these materials. The magnetic forces align and the magnet sticks to the material.
4     Why do magnets stick together? A magnet has two poles, just like the Earth. It has a north pole and a south pole. The magnetic force pushes out from the north pole of the magnet and travels to the south pole of the magnet. The magnetic force can be felt all around the magnet. The closer you get to the magnet, the stronger the force will be.
5     The poles on a magnet help to explain why magnets can stick together but can also push away from each other. The north pole of one magnet will stick to the south pole of another magnet. The magnetic forces of each magnet are moving in the same direction. If you have two magnets with their north poles (or south poles) facing each other, they will push each other away. Their magnetic forces are moving in opposite directions. They are pushing against each other.
6     Magnets have many uses. Of course, they are great for holding notes to your refrigerator, but they can do a lot more. Magnets are used in computers and electric motors. They are used in medical devices. They are used in CD and DVD players. Scientists, engineers, and inventors have found many uses for magnets, and they will, no doubt, continue to find more
Fields of Attraction and Poles    

1     The fields are alive with the spark of attraction! We have all heard the saying "opposites attract," but how far away can they be before they attract? The answer lies in magnetic fields of force. A magnetic field of force is the invisible area around a magnet where the force of the magnet can be felt. This field of force allows the magnet to attract steel and iron objects without touching them. This invisible field can be inferred based upon how steel and iron objects react to the magnet from a distance. For example, if you place a paper clip on a table near a magnet, the paper clip will be drawn into the field of force, therefore moving towards the magnet. Attraction from a distance has occurred. 2  
   Magnets come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Common shapes are bars, letters (u and v), horseshoes, and cylinders. The field of force, which is strongest at the poles or ends of the magnet, surrounds the entire magnet. Magnets that are shaped like u's, v's, and horseshoes are more powerful than other types of simple magnets. As you may have guessed, when you have two poles to attract objects instead of one pole, the magnet's pull is much stronger. How do we locate the boundaries of a magnet's field of force? Well, the field of force around the magnet goes on for an infinite distance beyond where the human eye can see. So for our investigation purposes, we can say the magnet's field of force ends when we are no longer able to see its effect on steel and iron objects, such as a paper clip.
 3     We know that the field of force surrounds a magnet, but does that field travel through other materials to attract objects? What do you think would happen if you put a paper clip in the palm of your hand and held a strong magnet against the back of your hand? Well, if you said the paper clip would move, you would be right. Magnetic fields of force can go through many types of materials, like your hand, without losing its power of attraction. Those materials and your hand are "transparent'' to the magnetic field's lines of force. This means that the magnet's power of attraction can go through your hand and attract an iron or steel object within its field of force. Now you understand why people can wear magnetic earrings on their earlobes. Plumbers also use this scientific principle to help them locate iron pipes in closed walls. Iron and steel, however, are opaque to a magnetic field's lines of force. When a magnet touches an iron or steel object, the force passes to the inside of the object and back into the magnet causing an attraction.
 4     As you read earlier, the ends of magnets are referred to as poles. The poles of a magnet are usually labeled with an "S" for south and an "N" for north. If you were to suspend or hang a magnet near another magnet, the similar or like poles (north-north or south-south) would repel or move away from each other. The opposite poles of the two magnets (north- south or south-north) would attract to each other. We could apply this same scientific principle to help understand the magnetic poles of the earth.
 5     Scientists believe the earth is one giant magnet. If you were to suspend a magnet from a string in North America, the north end of the magnet would point to the north magnetic pole. If you did the same experiment in South America, the south end of the magnet would point toward the south magnetic pole. (Both experiments would work provided that there was no interference from nearby metal objects or deposits.) Why does this occur? One theory is that several parts of the interior portions of the earth rotate at different speeds. The friction that occurs from this rotation causes electric particles to be stripped from atoms. As a result, electric currents are produced and magnetic fields are created. Magnetic poles are different from geographic poles. Since the core or center of the earth is believed to be made of nickel-iron, scientists think we have one huge electromagnet buried inside the earth.
 6     Remember the magnetic field's lines of force we talked about earlier? Well, the lines of force for the earth's magnetic fields run north and south extending into space and circling back down to concentrate at the north and south magnetic poles. Imagine if you sprinkled iron filings on a white sheet of paper and placed that paper over a bar magnet. You would see the iron filings looping from one pole of the magnet to the other with the majority of the filings located at both poles. This is how the magnetic lines of force would appear around earth if you could see them.
 7     We have our magnet swinging in North America, and it is pointing to the north magnetic pole. This freely swinging magnet lines itself up so that it is parallel to the earth's lines of force. The lines of force end at the magnetic poles, so the magnet would point to the north magnetic pole in North America. However, magnetic poles should not be confused with geographic poles. The north geographic and magnetic poles are about 1,000 miles (1,600 kilometers) apart, and the south geographic and magnetic poles are 1,500 miles (2,400 kilometers) apart. The location of the north magnetic pole is the upper Hudson Bay region of Canada, and the south magnetic pole is near Wilkes Land, Antarctica. In terms of compasses, they do not point true north, but they instead point to the magnetic north pole. These poles are constantly shifting, so navigation charts must be changed periodically. Remember, magnetic poles are invisible; geographic poles are not.
 8     Now that we have talked about swinging magnets, you are probably saying, "I thought like poles repelled each other and opposite poles attracted each other?" Well, this is still true. The reason for the confusion with our swinging magnet is due to history. People used magnets and compasses for a long time before they understood how they worked. Early scientists referred to the end of the magnet which points to the north as the North Pole. However, the more accurate term for that end of the magnet would be the north-seeking pole, and its opposite end would be the south-seeking pole.
 9     Try experimenting with the "laws of attraction." See if you can find ways to explore the earth's magnetic fields of force by designing a homemade needle compass. Who knows? You may be able to use it to journey to the center of the Earth.

Topic: Magnets and Motors

Genom undervisningen i ämnet fysik ska eleverna sammanfattningsvis ges förutsättningar att utveckla sin förmåga att 
använda kunskaper i fysik för att granska information, kommunicera och ta ställning i frågor som rör energi, teknik, miljö och samhälle,
genomföra systematiska undersökningar i fysik, och
använda fysikens begrepp, modeller och teorier för att beskriva och förklara fysikaliska samband i naturen och samhället.

Centralt innehåll i årskurs 4-6/ Central Core  4- 6

Vi ska fokusera på följande moment i kursplanen

Fysiken i naturen och samhället

Physics in nature and society

Energins oförstörbarhet och flöde, olika typer av energikällor och deras påverkan på miljön samt energianvändningen i samhället.

Indestructibility of energy and flows, different types of energy sources and their impact on the environment, as well as the use of energy in society.

Fysiken och vardagslivet

Elektriska kretsar med batterier och hur de kan kopplas samt hur de kan användas i vardaglig elektrisk utrustning, till exempel i ficklampor.

Electrical circuits with batteries and how they can be linked, and also how they can be used in daily electrical equipment such as torches.

Magneters egenskaper och användning i hemmet och samhället.Properties of magnets and their use in the home and society.

Fysiken och världsbilden

Några historiska och nutida upptäckter inom fysikområdet och deras betydelse för människans levnadsvillkor och syn på världen.

Some historical and contemporary discoveries in physics and their importance for people’s living conditions and views on the world.

Olika kulturers beskrivningar och förklaringar av naturen i skönlitteratur, myter och konst och äldre tiders naturvetenskap.

Different cultures – their descriptions and explanations of nature in fiction, myths and art, and in earlier science.

Lgr 11
Central innehåll
Central Core
Kapitel i grundboken
Relevant Chapters
Nature and Society
Life of animals, plants and other organisms. Photosynthesis, combustion and ecological relationships, and the importance of knowledge with regard to agriculture and fishery
Djurs, växters och andra organismers liv. Fotosyntes, förbränning och ekologiska samband och vilken betydelse kunskaper om detta har, till exempel för jordbruk och fiske.
Page 143-155
Biology Naturen.( PULS)
 Ecosystems in the local environment, relationships between different organisms and the names of common species. Relationships between organisms and the non-living environment.
Ekosystem i närmiljön, samband mellan olika organismer och namn på vanligt förekommande arter. Samband mellan organismer och den icke levande miljön.


What is Photosynthesis?

What is combustion?

Describe the flow of energy in food chains/ food webs

Explain the interdependence of organisms in different habitats.

What is the effect of human activities on the natural environment?

Explain the water cycle

Write down facts about the terminologies you have got in the lists issued to you.

Revise the material on your work sheets/ stencils facts from  video links etc.

Check in goals on the blog what is required of you in this area.

 Concerning air

- Varför behöver vi luft?

- Vad är lufttryck?

- Varför blir det olika väder?

- Hur kan vi använda oss av luften?

- Vad är luftföroreningar?


This is expalined from video links and facts from textbooks

Why do we need air?

- What is air pressure?

- Why are there different weather conditions?

- How can air be beneficial?

- What is air pollution?

Ecosytem in Water link

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