In years 4–6

**Understanding and use of numbers**

• Rational numbers and their properties.

• The positioning system of numbers in decimal form. The binary number system and number systems used in some cultures through history, such as the Babylonian.

• Numbers in fractions and decimals and their use in everyday situations.

• Numbers in percentage form and their relation to numbers in fraction and decimal form.

• Numbers in fractions and decimals and their use in everyday situations.

• Numbers in percentage form and their relation to numbers in fraction and decimal form.

• Main methods of calculating using natural numbers and simple numbers in decimal form when calculating approximations, mental arithmetic, and calculations using written methods and calculators. Using the methods in different situations.

• Plausibility assessments when estimating and making calculations in everyday situations.

**Algebra**

• Unknown numbers and their properties and also situations where there is a need to represent an unknown number by a symbol.

• Simple algebraic expressions and equations in situations that are relevant

for pupils.

• Methods of solving simple equations.

• How patterns in number sequences and geometrical patterns can be constructed, described and expressed.

**Geometry**

• Basic geometrical objects such as polygons, circles, spheres, cones, cylinders, pyramids, cuboids and their relationships. Basic geometrical properties of these objects.

• Construction of geometrical objects. Scale and its use in everyday situations.

• Symmetry in everyday life, in arts and nature and how symmetry can

be constructed.

• Methods for determining and estimating circumference and areas of different two-dimensional geometrical figures.

• Comparing, estimating and measuring length, area, volume, mass, time and angles using common units of measurement. Measurements using contemporary and older methods.

Probability and statistics

• Probability, chance and risk based on observations, experiments or statistical material from everyday situations. Comparisons of probability in different random trials.

• Simple combinatorial analysis in concrete situations.

• Tables and diagrams to describe the results of investigations. Interpretation of data in tables and diagrams.

• Measures of central tendency - average, mode and median and how they are used in statistical investigations.

**Relationships and change**

• Proportionality and percentage and their relationship.

• Graphs for expressing different types of proportional relationships in

simple investigations.

• The coordinate system and strategies for scaling coordinate axes.

**Problem solving**

• Strategies for mathematical problem-solving in everyday situations.

• Mathematical formulation of questions based on everyday situations.